Folk Dances of Jharkhand | Short Notes for JPSC

Chhau Dance

Popular Chhau dance of Jharkhand has a unique identity. UNESCO included this form of dance in Heritage Dances in year 2010. This is a male dominated dance which is performed with mask or without mask. To attack or to hunt secretly is also a description of this dance. Chhau dance, originating from Jharkhand is now integrated in the cultures of Odisha and West Bengal. This dance has become a part of the cultures of these three states.

There are four varieties of this dance – Saraikela Chhau (Jharkhand), Mayurbhanj Chhau (Odisha), Purulia Chhau (West Bengal) and Singua Chhau of Khunti District of Jharkhand.

According to Tapan Kumar Patnaik, Director – Guru of Chhau Dance Center, real origin of Chhau dance is Saraikela district of Jharkhand.

Paika Dance

In the tribal community of Jharkhand, Paika Dance is usually performed to welcome special respected guests or during religious procession (Shobha Yatra). This Dance symbolishes battle-art. The dancing artiste holds a shield (Dhal) in his left hand and a two edged sword in his right hand. His dresses are bright, attractive and fitted with frills (Jhalar). Peacock wings (Pankh) is thrust in turban. To avoide falling of turban, colourfull cloth strips are tied on hands, elbows and chest in artistic manner. Due to coloured strips an impression of colourfull wings is created. This is why this is called Paika Dance. When pairs of three, five, seven, nine or eleven dancers dance together in uniformity, sound of ghunghroo and Paijan Creates a wonderful atmosphere.

Khadia Dance

Khadia Community is a part of ‘Agneya’ family. But Khadias are not so close as Munda, Santhal and Ho are with one another. From cultural view, they have separate existence. Their dances continue round the year according to weather and speciality of occasion. In their dance too, collectivity is present. At a time, all relations of village-house are connected with cordial relation of dance and music, Khadia community, women dance in a row joining hand with each other. Sometimes, they also dance in a row joining hand with each other. Sometimes, they also dance separately as well. Mandar, Nagara, Dhol etc are their favorite musical instrument. The male dance of Khadia community are Hario, Kinbhar, Halka, Doyor, Jadura, Jeth Lahsua, Jethwari, Thadia, Karma Thadia, Jethwari Thoylo, Jethwani Angani, Chait Baisakh Tndia, Lahsua, Sayalo etc.

Kadsa Dance

Kadsa dance is a dance style performed carrying a ‘Kalasha’ (earthen pot). This is a female dominated dance. Normally in this dance style, women perform carrying a ‘Kalash’ on their shoulders or heads. Usually male are not included in this dance style. Men just play instruments. Whether it is a seasonal festival or welcoming a guest, this dance style match step by step with hopes of life.

It is said about Jharkhand that here dance is walking and music is life. Kadsa is a dance, which expresses this sophisticated feeling beautifully.

Nagpuri Dance

All dances of Jharkhand are primitive folk dances. All folk dances are traditional, which are inherited by tribal groups as heritage through centuries, primitive period and through generation to generation. Some of these traditional folk dances are slow and some are fast. Nagpuri dance style is a folk dance of mixed nature, which starts slowly and then becomes very fast. This dance is largely exhibited in Nagpuri films also. It would not be an exaggeration to describe this form of dance as the most modern folk dance

Biroh Dance

Birhor Dance is a tribal folk dance from Jharkhand. When we celebrate the festival Deepawali the tribal Birhor who lived in the deep forests prepare for marriage of their young boys & girls. First they pray their God and then worship; after that the girls go to jungle bushes and then boys are released. Then their marriage takes place. After that this form of dance is performed in group by all Birhora.

Manbhum Chau

The Manbhum Chhau is a martial art dance performed by mainly Kurmi community where the group of dancers use heavy masks and brightly coloured costumes and traditional ornaments to give an attractive look. The mask is used for depiction of character. Animated, fast movements and loud beats of drum recreate war like ambience while depicting mythological stories. They jump, take vaultplays swords and dance. They normally perform in an arena called Akhda.

Mundari Dance

झारखंड मे मुंडा समाज कि अपनी पहचान उनकी भाषा-संस्कृति को लेकर है। इनके नृत्य भी ऋतु परिवर्तन के अनुरूप पृथक-पृथक राग, ताल पर सालों भर चलते रहते हैं, जो इसके उत्सव, पर्व त्योहार के द्योतक भी हैं। ऐसे अवसरों पर नृत्य संगीत के बिना इतना उत्सव संभव ही नहीं। मुंडा समाज के प्रमुख नृत्य हैं। जदुर, ओरजदूर, निरजदुर, जपी, गेना, चिटिद, छव, करम, खेमटा, जरगा, ओरजरगा, जतरा, पइका, बुरू, जाली नृत्य आदि। इनकी विशेषता है कि महिला दल में पुरुष जुड़ कर नृत्य नहीं करते हैं।

मुंडारी नृत्य शैली का दायरा बहुत बड़ा है। किसानी से लेकर मौसम के हिसाब से आनेवाले त्योहारों तक लगातार इनका जीवन राग-रागिनियों से भरा होता है।

Santhali Dance

संथाली के नृत्य गीत अन्य आदिवासी नृत्यों कि तुलना में किंचित भिन्न होते हैं। किसी किसी नृत्य में महिलाएं एक दूसरे के हाथों से मुट्ठी जोड़ कर मात्र हाथों को हिलती हुई सधे कदमों कि विशेष चल पर वृतकर घूमते हुए नृत्य करती हैं। किसी किसी नृत्य मे नाचने वाले गीत नहीं गाये जाते हैं, मात्र वाद्य बजते हैं। संथाली नृत्य के पद संचालन कलात्मक होते हैं। इनकी वेश-भूषा भी कलात्मक होती है। महिला पुरुष हरे, कत्थे, रंग के चार खनेदार साड़ी-धोती, पगड़ी कलात्मक रूप से पहनते हैं। कभी नृत्य मे ये घूमते, उछलते, कभी जुड़ते, कभी टूटते हैं। कई कई मुद्राओं मे ये विभिन्न गति के नृत्य करते हैं। इनके नृत्य संगीत मे गज़ब का आकर्षण होता है। संथाल भी मुंडा कुल से आते हैं। भाषा संस्कृति मे पर्यात्प समानताओं के होते भी इनके मौलिक भेद हैं। नृत्य संगीत में यह परिवर्तन स्पष्ट दिखाई देता है।

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