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Chuar Rebellion & Chero Rebellion, Chero Movement, Bhogta Rebellion | Jharkhand

Chuar Rebellion: (1769-1805 AD) – चुआर विद्रोह : (1769-1805 ई.)

Reasons for the rebellion:

The British officials used to call the Bhumijs of Jungle Mahal as Chuar/Choar (meaning Duvant and low caste), hence their rebellion was called Chuar Rebellion. The Chuars made a living by clearing the forest, hunting animals and birds and selling the things produced in the forest.Most of them worked as ‘paikas’ or soldiers in the local zamindars. They were given land in lieu of salary, which was called ‘paican land’. As soon as the British rulers took possession, snatched the ancestral lands of the Chuars and sold them to new landlords and started settling new subjects together with these landlords. Simultaneously, after removing the pike and bringing it from outside, the police were appointed in their place. Due to this, thousands of pike started eating stumbling blocks after losing land, house-door, means of livelihood.The combined power of these paikas (sepoys) and peasants ignited the fire of rebellion, which became very difficult for the British rulers to extinguish. Apart from this, the British rulers had snatched the land from the hands of the Zamindars, who were unable to pay the hugely increased revenue. Some of the landlords who had lost their land joined the rebellion. This rebellion was done over famine, increase in rent, auction of land and other economic issues.

Form of rebellion :

The names of the prominent leaders of the Chuar rebellion are Raghunath Mahato, Shyam Ganjam, Subal Singh, Jagannath Patar; Mangal Singh, Durjan Singh, Lal Singh, Mohan Singh etc. Raghunath Mahato gave the slogan in 1769 AD ‘Apna Gaon Apna Raj, Faraway Foreign Raj’. The names of the suppressors of the Chuar rebellion are Lieutenant Nun, Captain Forbes, Lieutenant Goodyar etc. For nearly 30 years, due to the disturbances of the Chuars, there was unrest in the entire area.

The Company Government understood that some facilities to the Paiks, Farmers and Jindars; For example, peace in the area is not possible without the restoration of police rights of landlords and Ghatwals, etc. Therefore, by a resolution dated March 6, 1800 AD, the Jindari-Ghatwali police system was restored.On December 13, 1805, this arrangement also got the approval of the Company’s government. The law and order situation improved with the appointment of local people as police officers in place of non-tribal inspectors. After the creation of the Jungle Mahal district, relatively peace was maintained in the Manbhum area for 25 years (1805-30 AD).

Key facts of Chuar Rebellion:

  • The Chuad rebellion was done over famine, increase in rent, auction of land and other economic issues.
  • The names of the prominent leaders of Chuad rebellion are – Raghunath Mahato, Shyam Ganjam, Subal Singh, Jagannath Patar, Mangal Singh, Durjan Singh, Lal Singh, Mohan Singh etc.
  • In 1769, Raghunath Mahto gave the slogan ‘Apna village, Apna Raj, away foreign Raj.’
  • In the month of April 1798, the Chuars of Ghatshila, Bindu Mandalkunda, Purugram, etc., of the Jungle Mahal of Birbhum, and the Chuads of Midnapore, revolted due to the economic discontent that had arisen against the increase in land revenue by the British.
  • In June, Chuad and Paik of Bankura and Paik of Orissa joined it. British repression did not work in front of the wider nature of the rebellion and the British were forced to return the land and all the facilities snatched from them to the Chuad and Paik chieftains.

Chero Rebellion: (1770-71 AD), Chero Movement (1800-1818 AD) and Bhogta Rebellion (1771 AD)

Chero Rebellion: (1770-71 AD):

In the year 1770-71, the Chero ruler Chitrajit Rai of Palamu and his Dewan Jaynath Singh organized a rebellion against the British fighting on behalf of Gopal Rai, the claimant to the throne of Palamu, which is known as ‘Chero Rebellion’. In fact, it was a battle to capture the throne of Palamu. Eventually the British Captain Jacob Camac was successful in defeating the Chero rebels and capturing Palam. On July 1, 1771, Gopal Rai was declared the king of Palamu.

Bhogta Rebellion (1771 AD):

In fact, the Bhogta rebellion was a supplementary event of the Chero rebellion of 1770-71 AD. Jainath Singh, the Diwan (Prime Minister) of Raja Chitrajit Rai of Palamu, was a bhogta Sardar. The British used to talk directly to Jainath Singh only. On January 9, 1771, Jaynath Singh received a letter from Patna Council through his messenger Ghulam Hussain Khan, in which order was given to hand over the Palamu Fort to the Company peacefully. From here the Bhogta rebellion started. It was fought together with the Cheras. Jainath Singh was ready to leave Palamu Fort, but with some conditions. Since the Company was intent on capturing the Palamu Fort, the British refused to accept the conditions laid down by Jainath Singh, calling them unreasonable. The fight has started. Both Bhogta and Cheras fought the British together, but Bhogta Sardar Jayanath. Singh was defeated and fled to Surguja and the British declared Gopal Rai as the king of Palamu.

Chero Movement (1800–1818):

The Chero tribe of Palamu revolted under the leadership of Bhukhan Singh in 1800 AD against the high tax collection and re-acquisition of sub-dependent pattas. In suppressing it, the British resorted to deceit and cunning. As a result of this rebellion, in 1809, the British Government formed the Zamindari Police Force to maintain peace and order in Chotanagpur.In 1814, under the guise of auction of Palamu pargana, the British captured it and handed over the responsibility of governance to Raja Ghanshyam Singh of Bhardev. In 1817, he revolted against this conspiracy of the British by ensuring tribal cooperation, but this too was suppressed. This rebellion was suppressed by Colonel Jones.

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