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Ho Rebellion: (1820-21 AD) – हो विद्रोह : (1820-21 ई.)
Causes and nature of rebellion:
The abode of the Ho people was known as ‘Ho Desam’ (the land of the Ho caste) or ‘Kolhan’ (Kol-place). Ho Desam/Kolhan was never owned by the Mughals or the Marathas. Although the Singh kings of Porhat had influence over them, they were equal and not subordinate to the Singh dynasty.They did not pay any regular tax to the Singh kings, only gave some gifts/gifts from time to time. As a result of being free from external control for a long time, he became freedom-loving and fighter in nature. For this reason, during the company period, these fighters were famous as ‘Kol’.
On the request of the Raja of Singhbhum, in the year 1820 AD, Political Agent Major Rufus entered Ho Desam with an army. The British were victorious in a battle with the Ho people on the banks of the Roro River near Chaibasa. Despite this repression, the Ho of only the northern part of the Desam agreed to pay taxes to the Raja of Porhat.The Ho people of southern Kolhan continued to oppose the British. Ho people started creating disturbance in the areas of the border states. As a result of these activities of the Ho people, the Porhat king again had to plead for help from Rafsej. As a result, Colonel Richard in 1821 AD. A large army under the leadership of Ho was sent against the people. The Ho people confronted Richard for a month, but eventually found the protest meaningless. Better to make a deal with the company. The main conditions of the treaty were – (i) Ho people accepted the subordination of the company. (ii) The Ho people agreed to pay 8 annas (50 paisa) per plow annually to their kings and zamindars.
Despite this treaty, the disturbances in Kolhan did not end, in 1831-32 AD the Ho people took an active part in the Kol rebellion.
Key Facts of Ho Rebellion (for MCQs):
- The ‘Ho’ people of Chotanagpur revolted fiercely in 1820–21.
- This rebellion took place in the area of Singhbhum.
- This rebellion was also against the exploitation of the British and the landlords.
- The main reason for this rebellion was the exploitation by Raja Jagannath Singh and its backwardness to the British.
- The Ho rebellion was suppressed in 1820–21 under Major Rusage and in 1837 under Captain Wilkinson.
Kol Rebellion: (1831-32 AD) – कोल विद्रोह : (1831-32 ई.)
The Kol rebellion has a special place in the tribal revolts in Jharkhand, because it was the first organized and widespread tribal revolt of Jharkhand. Exploited by their new masters, oppressed by dikus (outsiders) and deprived of their traditional source of justice, the tribals of Chotanagpur had no choice but to revolt. In fact, it was a rebellion of the Mundas, in which Ho joined as his right hand.
The tribes of some areas of Chotanagpur Khas, Palamu, Singhbhum and Manbhum participated in this rebellion. Only Hazaribagh remained untouched by this rebellion. It was the result of the Kol rebellion that in 1834 AD, an administrative unit named ‘South-West Frontier Agency’ was formed by merging the revolt-affected areas with some other areas, with its headquarters at Vishunpur or Wilkinsonganj (later Ranchi). created.
Key Facts of Kol Rebellion (for MCQs):
- If anyone bothered the British rulers and landlords the most in Chotanagpur, it was the Kol rebels.
- It was the rebellion of the Munda tribe, in which the ‘Ho’ caste also openly supported.
- In this rebellion, the tribes of Chotanagpur especially Singhbhum, Palamu, Manbhum participated in large numbers.
- The main reason for the Kol rebellion was ‘land discontent’.
- One of the main leaders of this rebellion was Budhu Bhagat. In this battle he was killed along with his brother, son and 100 followers. Sindrai and Surga, two other leaders of the rebels fought till the end. He surrendered in 1832.
- The revolt was suppressed, but the lands of the village headman (munda) and the pir chief (mankis) made up of seven to twelve villages were returned.
- As a result of this rebellion, a new province, the South West Frontier Agency, was formed in 1833 AD. Later, financial and judicial powers were also given to the ‘Manki Munda system’.