Ministry of Law and Justice (India)

Education and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan | Government of India


  • Article 21(A) of the Constitution of India provides for Right to Education as a Fundamental Right and its consequent legislation, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 became operative in the country in 2010.
  • The RTE Act confers the right to elementary education on all children, in the age group of 6-14 years, on the basis of equality of opportunity in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards. All states and UTs have notified their state RTE Rules.
  • The centrally sponsored scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is being implemented since 2001 for universalization of elementary education.
  • As per norms it has been made mandatory for the schools to constitute School Management Committees (SMC) wherein the parents/guardians of students studying in the respective school are the members.
  • Section 12(1) (c) of the RTE Act mandates all private unaided schools and special category schools to reserve a minimum of 25 per cent of seats for economically weaker sections.

Bridging Gender Gaps in Elementary Education

  • Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) are residential upper primary schools for girls from SC, ST, OBC Muslim communities and BPL girls. KGBVs are set up in educational backward blocks where schools are at great distances and are a challenge to their security of girls.
  • Department of School Education and Literacy, with the support of UNICEF has prepared a Digital Gender Atlas for advancing girls’ education to identify low performing geographic pockets for girls, particularly from marginalized groups in the country.

SC/ST and Muslims

  • Enrolment of SC children has gone up from 19.06 per cent in 2010-11 to 19.8 per cent in 2015-16 at elementary level which is more than their share in population at 16.60 per cent (as per Census 2011).
  • Enrolment of ST children has marginally gone down from 10.70 per cent in 2010-11 to 10.35 per cent in 2015-16 at elementary level which is more than their share of population at 8.60 per cent (as per census 2011).
  • Enrolment of Muslim children has grown up from 12.50 per cent in 2010-11 to 13.8 per cent in 2015-16 at elementary level which is slightly less than their share in population (14.2 per cent as per Census 2011).

Sub-Programmes under SSA

  • The Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat (PBBB) programme in classes I and II is focusing on foundational learning in early grades with an emphasis on reading, writing and comprehension and mathematics.
  • The Rashtriya Aavishkar Abhiyan (RAA) aims to motivate and engage children of the age group 6-18 years, in science, mathematics and technology. Schools have been adopted for mentoring by institutions of higher education like IIT’s, IISER’s and NIT’s.
  • Vidyanjali was launched to enhance community and private sector involvement in Government run elementary schools across the country.
  • MHRD has developed a web portal called ShaGun to monitor the implementation of SSA.


  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) was launched in 2009 with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and improve its quality.
  • The schemes envisages to enhance the enrolment at secondary stage by providing a secondary school with a reasonable distance of habitation, with an aim to ensure GER of 100 per cent and universal retention by 2020.

Initiatives under RMSA:

  • Shaala Siddhi: School Standards and Evaluation Framework and its web portal was launched in 2015. It is a comprehensive instrument for school evaluation leading to school improvement. Developed by the National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA).
  • The ‘Shaala Darpan Project’ to cover all the 1099 Kendriya Vidyalayas was launched in June, 2015. The objective of this project is to provide services based on school management systems to students, parents and communities.
  • Kala Utsav is an initiative of this Ministry to promote arts (music, theatre, dance, visual arts and crafts) in education by nurturing and showcasing the artistic talent of school students at secondary stage in the country.

Samagra Shiksha

  • The Department of School Education & Literacy launched an Integrated Scheme for School Education- Samagra Shiksha from 2018-19.
  • It envisages ‘school’ as a continuun form pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary to senior secondary levels.
  • Preference is to be given to Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), Special Focus Districts (SFDs), border areas and the aspirational districts identified by NITI Aayog. Allocation for uniforms has been enhanced from ₹150/250 to 250/400 per child per annum. Energized textbooks have also been introduced.

Pariksha Pe Charcha

  • Prime Minister’s Interaction Programme with school and college students “Pariksha Pe Charcha” was held in 2018 wherein the Prime Minister was interacting Live with school and college students through web interaction across the country.


Following schemes have been subsumed under Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan:

  • The Centrally sponsored scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, which was revised in 2014 with a view to align it with the National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF) into which the NVEQF has been assimilated.
  • The Scheme of Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary stage (IEDSS), launched in 2009-10 replacing the earlier scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC).


  • The centrally sponsored scheme for Teacher Education was initiated in 1987.
  • It aims to establish DIETs in all districts; strengthen Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs); strengthen Institutes of Advanced Studies in Education (IASEs); and establish block institutes of teacher education (BITEs) in identified SC/ST/minority concentration districts.
  • Under it, the Department of School Education and Literacy, launched ‘India Teacher Education Portal (Prashikshak)’ in 2016 to monitor teachers education Institutions.


The objectives of the Scheme are:

  • Encourage Madarsas and Maktabs to introduce formal subjects i.e., science, mathematics, social studies, Hindi and English by means of providing financial assistance;
  • children studying in Madarsas and Maktabs attain academic proficiency for class I-XII;
  • Madarsas/Maktabs/Dar-ul-Uloom can opt to become accredited study centres with National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) for which proper assistance will be provided etc.


  • This centrally sponsored scheme was launched in 2008 with the objective to award scholarships to meritorious students of economically weaker sections to arrest their drop out at class VIII and encourage them to continue study at secondary and higher secondary stage up to class XII.


  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2008 with the objective to establish an enabling environment to reduce the drop-outs and to promote the enrolment of girl children belonging mainly to SC/ST communities in secondary schools.
  • The scheme covers (i) all girls belonging to SC/ST communities, who pass VIII and (ii) all girls who pass VIII examination from Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas and enrol in class IX in a state government, government-aided and local body schools.


  • National Literacy Mission (NLM) was launched in 1988 for adults in age group of 15+. It was revamped in 2009 in alignment with new paradigms of lifelong learning as Saakshar Bharat.
  • The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) is the implementing organization at national level for all the activities envisaged in Adult Education and Skill Development.


  • Instituted in 1958, the National Award to Teachers (NAT) is given away by the President of India on 5th September (Teacher’s Day) every year to give public recognition to meritorious teachers working in primary, middle and secondary schools.


  • The Scheme of Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVS) (Central Schools) was approved in 1962 to provide uninterrupted education to the wards of transferrable central government employees.
  • The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan was registered as a society under the Societies Registration Act in 1965 to manage the Kendriya Vidyalayas located all over India and abroad. The Government of India wholly finances the Sangathan.


  • The National Policy on Education, 1986, envisaged setting up of residential Navodaya schools with an aim of providing excellence coupled with equity and social justice.
  • Consequent to this, Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti was registered as a Society, under the Society Registration Act, of 1860, with the objective to establish Navodaya Vidyalayas.


  • NCERT provides academic and technical supports for qualitative improvement of school education. The NCERT was established in 1961.
  • NCERT books are available free in digital version on e-Pathshala app.
  • The major constituent units of the NCERT are:
    • National Institute of Education (NIE), New Delhi;
    • Central Institute of Education Technology (CIET), New Delhi;
    • Pandit Sunder Lal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE), Bhopal;
    • five regional institutes of education (RIEs) at Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Mysore and Umiam (Meghalaya).


  • National Bal Bhavan (NBB), established in 1956, is an autonomous institution funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • It aims at enhancing the creative potential of children by providing them various activities, opportunities and common platform to interact, experiment, create and perform according to their age, aptitude and ability.


  • It is a Board of Education for public and private schools, under the Union Government. CBSE has asked all schools affiliated to follow only NCERT curriculum.
  • It was in the year 1962 finally that the Board was reconstituted.


  • NIOS is “Open School” to cater to the needs of a heterogeneous group of learners up to pre-degree level.
  • It was established by the Ministry of HRD in 1989.


  • The Mid-Day Meal Scheme covers children of classes I-VIII studying in government, government- aided schools, special training centres (STC) and madarsas/ maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). It is the largest school feeding programme in the world.
  • “Tithi Bhojan” is a concept designed to ensure greater public participation under the Mid-Day Meal Programme being followed in Gujarat.
  • The concept of Tithi Bhojan has been adopted by different states with local nomenclatures like ‘Sampriti Bhojan’ in Assam, ‘Dham’ in Himachal Pradesh, ‘Sneh Bhojan’ in Maharashtra, ‘Shalegagi Naavu Neevu’ in Karnataka, ‘Anna Dhanam’ in Puducherry, ‘Priti Bhoj’ in Punjab and ‘Utsav Bhoj’ in Rajasthan.


  • There were only 20 universities and 500 colleges at the time of independence which have increased by 38 times (i.e., 760) in the case of the universities and 77 times (i.e. 38,498) in the case of colleges.
  • The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) for educational institutions was launched to enable parents, students, teachers, educational institutions and other stakeholders to rank institutions on the basis of a set of objective parameters and a transparent process.
  • A credit framework Skills Assessment Matrix for Vocational Advancement of Youth (SAMVAY) is now in place which allows vertical and lateral mobility within vocational education system and between the current education system.
  • Education Sector Skill Council was constituted in 2014, to consider job roles other than academic faculties and teacher qualifications.
  • Yukti – Yogya Kalakriti ki Takneek aims at skill development and upgrade of design and technologies enhancing the economic prospects of those engaged in traditional crafts and arts as a means of livelihood.
  • SAKSHAM – Scholarship Scheme for differently-abled children aims at providing encouragement and support to differently-abled children to pursue technical education.
  • The UGC launched a special scholarship scheme for students of north-east region, Ishan Uday from the academic session 2014-15.
  • Ishan Vikas – Academic Exposure for North Eastern Students: The programme has been launched with a plan to bring selected college and school students from the north-eastern states into close contact with IITs, NITs and IISERs during their holiday periods for academic exposure.
  • Pragati (scholarship for girl students) is a scheme of AICTE aimed at providing assistance for advancement of girls participation in technical education.
  • UGC has introduced the Swami Vivekananda Scholarship for Single Girl Child for research in social sciences with an aim to compensate direct costs of higher education especially for such girls who happen to be the only girl child in their family.
  • The National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) Scheme aims to leverage the potential of ICT for teaching and learning processes.
  • Swayam – Study Webs of Active -Learning for Young Aspiring Minds: It is a Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) initiative on a national platform with a comprehensive academic structure. The integrated platform will offer courses covering engineering, humanities and social sciences etc., to be used by learners at large.
  • Global Initiative for Academic Network (GIAN) aims at tapping the talent pool of scientists and entrepreneurs, internationally to encourage their engagement with the institutes of higher education in India.
  • Growing Aptitude in Numerical Innovations and Training (GANIT) week in schools affiliated to CBSE was organized to commemorate the birth anniversary of Srinivasa Ramanujan and to actively promote interest of students in mathematics.


  • The Copyright Office was established in 1958.
  • It functions under the administrative control of the Department of Higher Education.
  • It is headed by the Registrar of Copyright, who has quasi-judicial powers in handling cases relating to copyright.
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