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Munda Rebellion & Haribaba Movement | Jharkhand

Munda Rebellion: (1899-1900 AD) – मुंडा विद्रोह : (1899-1900 ई.)

The Munda rebellion was the most organized and elaborate rebellion among the tribal rebellions. This rebellion led by Birsa Munda is also called Ulgulan rebellion. The main reason for this rebellion was exploitation and oppression by Dikus and Zamindars. Due to the fundamental changes that were taking place in the social life of the time, there was an atmosphere of concern in the tribal society and people were inspired by the imagination of a peaceful and ideal society. Birsa preached purity of ethical conduct, self-improvement and monotheism. Rejecting the existence of British power, he ordered his followers not to pay rent to the government. Many people were influenced by his teachings, which gradually led to the wide spread of the Birsa movement. The movement later failed, but it was a natural reaction to social inequality, economic exploitation and change brought about by foreign power.

Key Facts of Munda Rebellion (for MCQs):

  • The hero of Munda rebellion movement, Birsa Munda is also known as ‘Dharti Aba’ and ‘Birsa Bhagwan’. He was born on 15 November 1875 in Ulihatu village.
  • This movement is also called ‘Ulgulan’ (Great Movement).
  • This movement was inspired by political, religious and social objectives and in terms of results became the most influential and famous among the tribal movements against the British rule.
  • This movement was organized mainly against the exploitation of them by the practice of forced labor by abolishing the system of collective farming prevalent among the Munda tribes.
  • The rebellion started in 1895.
  • In 1895, Birsa declared himself a messenger of God.
  • In 1895, Birsa declared himself a messenger of God.
  • Birsa had planned an armed rebellion, but on August 24, 1895, he was imprisoned by the Mayors. He was freed on November 30, 1897, on the occasion of the Diamond Jubilee of Britain’s Queen Victoria.
  • At Dubaru Buru, Birsa called a meeting of his trusted people, ministers and representatives, in which it was decided to revolt on 25 December 1899.
  • On December 25, 1899, agitations took place under his leadership in places like Khuti, Ranchi, Tamar, Basia, Chakradharpur etc.
  • He made Donka Munda political and Soma Munda the head of religious and social affairs.
  • His chief aide was Gaya Munda, who was appointed commander. Birsa used John Munda, Spina Munda, Pandu Munda, Tipru Munda, Demka Munda, Hatheram Munda etc. as advisors.
  • Birsa soldiers were active in areas like Khuti, Torpa, Bundu, Karra, Ranchi, Sisai, Basia etc.
  • The headquarters of the Birsa movement was Khuti. This movement is also considered as Sardar movement. Because the people of the Sardar movement had joined the Munda rebellion.
  • At the time of this rebellion, the Deputy Commissioner of Ranchi was Stratfield.
  • On February 3, 1900 AD, Birsa Munda was arrested by the man of Jagmohan Singh of Bandgaon, Veer Singh Mahli etc. in the greed of 500 rupees reward.
  • Birsa died of cholera in Ranchi jail on June 9, 1900. As a result of the Birsa movement, Gumla was made a subdivision in 1902 AD and Khuti in 1903 AD.
  • On November 11, 1908, the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act was implemented.

Haribaba Movement: (1930 AD) – हरिबाबा आंदोलनः (1930 ई.)

Causes and nature of rebellion

In the 1930s, the Duka Ho of Singhbhum, who was popularly known as Haribaba, started a movement called the ‘Haribaba Movement’. The aim of the Haribaba movement was the purification of the crumbling and disintegrating social, economic, religious system.Through this an attempt was made to organize the people of the ‘Ho’ tribe, so that they could escape the tyranny of outsiders. In this movement, apart from Hari Baba, Singrai Ho residents of Bhutagaon in Barkela Pir area, Bamia Ho of Bhadahatu area and Hari, Dula and Birjo Ho of Gadia area played an important role. These people propagated Sarna Dharma.

The Haribaba movement also adopted Gandhiji’s self-purification and sacrifice, because he hoped that through this movement he could drive away the demons. This movement became political under the influence of Gandhiji. He believed that Gandhiji was capable of driving away the British government.On May 15, 1931, he also showed ferocity and uprooted the telegraph wires in Singhbhum. Seeing this, the government took action to suppress this movement. The Haribaba movement disintegrated as a result of the repression.

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