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Sardar Movement (1858-95) – सरदारी आंदोलन (1858-95)
- It was originally against the zamindars, which arose out of the snatching of the tribes’ headship.
- The Chotanagpur Tenures Act was implemented in 1869 to solve the problem, but the complaints did not end, due to which this movement took place. In this the Munda Sardars agitated for collective farming.
Safahod Movement (1870) – सफाहोड़ आंदोलन (1870)
Causes and nature of rebellion:
- The credit for giving rise to this rebellion goes to Lal Hembram alias Lal Baba.
- He had found that the biggest reason for the failure of the Santhal rebellion was the lack of religious spirit and self-confidence among the people. Therefore, he emphasized on the strength of character.
- He gave the mantra of ‘Ram-Naam’ to the Safahodi agitators. He used to give white signal to the Santhals. They used to wear janeu and used to stop the consumption of meat and liquor.
- Being frightened, the British banned the making of Tulsi Chaura in the courtyard and chanting Ram-Nam.
- Lal Baba had formed the ‘Deshoddhakar Dal’ in Santhal Pargana on the lines of Azad Hind Fauj.
- His associates were Paika Murmu, Pagan Marandi, Bhatu Soren and Rasik Lal Soren.
Kharwar/Kherwad Movement (1874 AD) – खरवार/खेरवाड़ आंदोलन (1874 ई.)
The Kharwar/Kherwad movement has a remarkable place in the tribal reformist movements in Jharkhand. This movement initially taught monotheism and social reform, but just before its suppression it took the form of a campaign against the activities of revenue endowment. This movement was led by Bhagirath Manjhi of Kharwar tribe. That is why it is also called ‘Bhagirath Manjhi’s movement’.
Key Facts of Kharwar Movement (for MCQs):
- The Kharwar movement was one of the non-violent struggles against the British rule.
- This movement started in 1874 AD.
- Its hero was Bhagirath Manjhi.
- Its form was in no way different from the Safahod movement which manifested in its true form in later days.
- The credit for articulating it goes to Bhagwan Das of the palace and Lambodar Mukherjee of Dumka.
- Bhagirath Manjhi had adopted a non-cooperative policy towards the British rule and by declaring himself the king of the village of Bounsi, he started the system of collecting rent himself by not paying rent to the landlords and the government.
- Later, Gandhiji used the aspects related to his non-cooperation.
- Bhagirath Manjhi was born in Taldiha village of Godda district, where. He had established a bench.
- The second phase of the Kharwar movement is considered to be the movement led by Dilemma Gosain against the 1881 census.
- Bhagirath Manjhi was known as ‘Baba’ among the tribals.